Stats NZ has a new website.

For new releases go to

As we transition to our new site, you'll still find some Stats NZ information here on this archive site.

  • Share this page to Facebook
  • Share this page to Twitter
  • Share this page to Google+
Appendix 1 Data and definitions

Tirohia tēnei whārangi i te reo Māori

Data from Te Kupenga

Me he kupenga hao ika, koinei te kupenga hao tangata.

Like the ancestors who caught fish to feed and sustain the people, Te Kupenga gathered information to grow knowledge and inform decision making.

The data for this report comes from Te Kupenga 2013. Te Kupenga is a survey of Māori well-being. It includes measures based on the Māori perspective of cultural well-being, including wairuatanga (spirituality), tikanga (Māori customs and practices), whanaungatanga (social connectedness), and te reo Māori. The survey also contains general social and economic well-being measures, such as paid and unpaid work, civil participation, and self-assessed health status. These measures give an overall picture of the social, cultural, and economic well-being of Māori in New Zealand in 2013.

Te Kupenga 2013 (data quality section) has more information.


Here are the definitions of the main measures and terms included in this report.

Ancestral marae: a complex of buildings and spaces that belong to a particular iwi, hapū, or whānau that a person feels connected to because that is where their parents, grandparents, or ancestors are from. Respondents who knew their ancestral marae were also asked about visits to any of their ancestral marae.

Connection to tūrangawaewae: respondents who knew their ancestral marae and thought of this as their tūrangawaewae were asked how connected they felt to their tūrangawaewae. Respondents who had an ancestral marae they thought of as tūrangawaewae were also asked about living close to that marae.

Tūrangawaewae: a Māori concept of belonging to a place, where one can stand and feel they are home. It is a place of cultural significance where you feel you belong because your people are from there. Other terms Māori use are papa kāinga or wā kāinga but the notion is the same – it is a place that someone feels a sense of connection to.

Family type: is family composition within households. Measurement is based on level 1 of the New Zealand Classification of Family Types 2008. This report uses the three categories in the classification and a fourth category for people not in a family. 

  • couple without children – couples who don’t have children as well as couples whose children have left home
  • couple with child(ren) – couples and their child(ren) who live with them
  • one-parent with child(ren) – one adult with child(ren) who live with them
  • not in a family – someone living by themselves or people who are flatting.

First language: is the language first learned in childhood and still understood.

Labour force status: a respondent’s position in the labour-force in one of three groups: employed, unemployed, or not in the labour force. This measure is based on the New Zealand Standard Classification of Labour Force Status 1999 and refers to the respondent’s circumstances in defined time periods.

Māori: are defined, for the purposes of Te Kupenga, as individuals who identify themselves with Māori ethnicity or Māori descent.

Ethnicity: the ethnic group or groups a person identifies with or feels they belong to. Ethnicity is a measure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality, or citizenship. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.

See New Zealand Standard Classification of Ethnicity 2005 for more information.

Māori descent: a person is of Māori descent if they have any Māori ancestry; that is, they have a Māori birth parent, grandparent, great grandparent, etc.

See Māori descent – standard classification for more information.

Māori-medium education: is where students are taught all or some curriculum subjects in the Māori language for at least half of the time. In the context of Te Kupenga, Māori-medium education included kōhanga reo, kura kaupapa/wharekura, and wānanga.

Marae: an ancient institution from the eastern Pacific used for social and/or religious purposes. In most parts of tropical Polynesia marae were largely abandoned with the arrival of Christianity but still remain tapu (sacred) today. However, in Aotearoa New Zealand, the marae is still a vital part of everyday life where Māori culture can be celebrated, where te reo Māori can be spoken, where intertribal obligations can be met, and where important ceremonies, such as welcoming visitors or farewelling the dead (tangihanga), can be performed.

The marae has developed over time and can include traditional tribal-based ancestral marae, as well as marae that are non-kin based, for example marae that have been established by schools, urban groups, and churches, where people can gather and interact using tikanga Māori (Māori customs and practices). Respondents were asked if they had been to any marae.

Pepeha/tribal identity: is how someone introduces themselves in Māori. The pepeha is an oral way to connect and join people to people, places, and spaces via a statement of Māori tribal identity in which the person identifies, via a pithy or meaningful saying, their : iwi/tribe, hapū/sub-tribe, maunga/ mountain, awa/river/lake, marae tipuna/ ancestral marae, tipuna/ancestor, and waka/canoe. Respondents were asked if they knew each of these elements of their pepeha.

Personal income: is the respondent’s before-tax income in the previous 12 months. It is collected as an income range rather than an actual dollar income.

The measure is based on the New Zealand Standard Classification of Income Bands 1999 and combines the 16 categories of that classification into four summary groups:

  • $30,000 or less
  • $30,001–$70,000
  • $70,001–$100,000
  • $100,001 or more.

Te reo Māori proficiency: the respondent’s self-rated ability to speak in te reo Māori. These questions were used in Te Kupenga to provide comparability with the 2001 Survey on the Health of the Māori Language. Respondents were asked to place themselves in one of five categories as follows:

  1. very well (I can talk about almost anything in Māori)
  2. well (I can talk about many things in Māori)
  3. fairly well (I can talk about some things in Māori)
  4. not very well (I can only talk about simple/basic things in Māori)
  5. no more than a few words or phrases.
  • Share this page to Facebook
  • Share this page to Twitter
  • Share this page to Google+
  • Share this page to Facebook
  • Share this page to Twitter
  • Share this page to Google+