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Global New Zealand – International trade, investment, and travel profile: Year ended June 2010
Standard definitions and notes

Agricultural exports

This uses the standard World Trade Organization (WTO) definition for agriculture. Products include Harmonised System (HS) codes 1–24 inclusive, with the exception of HS 03 and some of HS 16 (processed fish). It also includes casein, hides and skins, and raw wool.


Cost, insurance, freight – the market value (or fob equivalent) of the imported goods plus the cost of freight and insurance from the source to destination.

Confidential classifications

"Under section 37A (d) of the Statistics Act, the Government Statistician may disclose details of external trade, movement of ships, and cargo handled at ports. However, Statistics New Zealand understands that the release of merchandise trade commodity information can, in some cases, place commercially sensitive information in the public domain. This can have detrimental effects on companies that export and/or import goods. In light of such circumstances, Statistics NZ is able to provide a limited form of confidential status for commodity items (at the discretion of the Government Statistician) on application by a company or business.

In practice, all confidential HS codes are aggregated into the code 9809.00.00.00 to protect their confidentiality and to maintain total export and import values. Any aggregations of HS codes below this level, which encompass confidential 10-digit codes, exclude the confidential value(s) for these codes. "


Free on board – the value of the goods delivered to the port of export and loaded onto a vessel for transportation out of the country of origin. Used for exported goods.

Government services nie

These comprise transactions of central government, the central bank, and local government. Both New Zealand government and foreign government transactions are recorded.


Insurance and re-insurance of all types, including freight insurance. The values recorded alongside insurance measure the value of insurance services provided by an economy to non-residents (the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) ‘exports’ series or, in Balance of Payments (BoP) terms, the credit item) and the value of insurance services purchased by residents from non-residents’ insurers (the MFAT ‘imports’ series, or BoP debits item). Insurance services is measured by multiplying the total amount of insurance premiums exported or imported by the five-year average domestic service charge ratio. The latter is the ratio of the domestic insurance service charge to total domestic premiums when the service charge is calculated as premiums minus claims.

Merchandise goods

Tangible, movable goods crossing the customs frontier.


Not elsewhere specified


Not included elsewhere

Non-agricultural exports

This uses the standard WTO definition. Non-agricultural exports comprise all other exports not included in agricultural exports.

Non-merchandise goods

Goods returned after repair or modification in New Zealand; goods on short-term loan or lease; and service transactions, eg computer data tapes and drawings.


This item covers those international service transactions not covered under the travel, transportation, insurance, or government services nie items. They include communication services, construction services, financial services, computer and information services, royalties and licence fees, personal, cultural, and recreational services, and other business services. Other business services includes merchanting, and other business, technical, and professional services.


This data records goods brought into New Zealand and exported without a ‘substantial transformation’. Although not a hard and fast rule, 50 percent value added is used as a yardstick to measure ‘substantial transformation’; above that level, the goods are classified as domestic exports. Trans-shipment goods are not included. Goods that are re-exported will have previously figured in some form in the import statistics. Re-exports are included in the general tables of this publication.


Items that are generally intangible or not physically movable (eg export education and tourism).


Transportation measures the value of transactions in transportation services between residents of different economies. Transportation services are those services provided through carriers (such as ships and aircraft) by their operators, and the goods and services consumed by carriers in the course of their operations. By international convention, exports are foreigners carried by a New Zealand carrier, either here or overseas. Imports are New Zealanders carried by a foreign carrier. New Zealanders carried by a domestic carrier (either here or overseas) constitute a domestic transaction and are not part of international trade. The types of services provided through carriers include the carriage of freight (exports and imports) and passengers. Other transportation services covered include the charter of carriers, and airport and harbour fees. Goods consumed by carriers in the course of their operations, including bunkering and provisioning, are recorded under merchandise goods.


Travel covers the goods and services acquired from an economy by individuals defined as travellers during their stay in that economy. The international carriage of travellers is not included here but is classified as transportation.


Value for duty – the market value of imported goods as used for Customs’ valuation purposes for tariff assessment in New Zealand.

Additional notes

The merchandise trade statistics are incompatible with the services data. Services data is collected and collated by Statistics NZ in line with the principles set by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for BoP data. These principles also have methodology for the collation and presentation of goods data that differs from that of the merchandise goods data used above. The key point is that you should not add the merchandise trade figures to services to obtain an overview of ‘goods and services trade’. Instead, readers are referred to the full BoP series, which adjust merchandise goods values according to the principles set down by the IMF. In particular, the value of imported goods is adjusted to a fob-equivalent basis in BoP statistics, but not in merchandise trade series. More information on BoP concepts and methods is available from Statistics NZ. 

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